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Somerset

From Academic Kids

This page is about the county of Somerset in the United Kingdom. For other meanings of Somerset, see Somerset (disambiguation).
Somerset
Missing image
EnglandSomerset.png
Image:EnglandSomerset.png

Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Administrative County
Region: South West England
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
Ranked 7th
4,171 km²
Ranked 12th
3,451 km²
Admin HQ: Taunton
ISO 3166-2: GB-SOM
ONS code: 40
NUTS 3: UKK23
Demographics
Population
- Total (2003 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
Ranked 22nd
869,835
208 / km²
Ranked 25th
507,460
Ethnicity: 98.5% White
Politics
Somerset County Council
http://www.somerset.gov.uk/
Executive Liberal Democrat
Members of Parliament
Districts
Image:Somerset_Ceremonial_Numbered.png
  1. South Somerset
  2. Taunton Deane
  3. West Somerset
  4. Sedgemoor
  5. Mendip
  6. Bath and North East Somerset (Unitary)
  7. North Somerset (Unitary)

Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. The county town is Taunton, situated at Template:Coor dms. Somerset adjoins Gloucestershire to the north east, Wiltshire to the east, Dorset to the south east and Devon to the southwest. The county is bounded to the north by the coast of the Bristol Channel.

The name is pronounced as though spelt Summerset. Some local people pronounce it Zummerzet as per the local West Country Accent. The name derives from Somerste, meaning land of the summer people. The name continues in the motto of the county, Sumorsaete ealle, meaning "all the people of Somerset" in Anglo-Saxon.

Somerset is a largely rural county famous for its rolling hills and downland, the large flat Somerset Levels, and the Exmoor National Park which straddles the border with Devon. The town of Glastonbury is famous in mythology. The north of the county is administratively independent and includes the city of Bath, a World Heritage Site famous for its Roman history and Georgian architecture. The popular sea-side resort Weston-Super-Mare lies on the Bristol Channel coast.

Contents

History

For the full article see History of Somerset

The Somerset Levels, and specifically the dry points such as Glastonbury and Cadbury Castle, have a long history of settlement, and is known to have been settled by mesolithic hunters. The caves of the Mendip Hills were settled during the neolithic and contain extensive archaeology. Somerset, like Dorset to the south, held the Saxon invasion back for over a century, remaining a fronteir between the Saxons and the Romano-British and Celts. The first known use of the name Somerste was in 845 after the region fell to the Saxons. After the Norman Conquest the county was divided into 700 fiefs, and large areas were owned by the crown.

In the English Civil War Somerset was largely Royalist, unlike neighbouring Wiltshire. In 1685 the Monmouth Rebellion was played out in Somerset and neighbouring Dorset. The rebels landed at Lyme Regis and traveled north hoping to capture Bristol and Bath, but were defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor.

The traditional northern boundary of the county was the River Avon, but this has crept southwards, with the creation and expansion of the City of Bristol. In 1974 a large part of northern Somerset was removed to form the southern half of the County of Avon. Avon has now been abolished, and North Somerset and Bath and North East Somerset have reverted to Somerset for ceremonial purposes, but are now independent counties in their own right for local government purposes.

Somerset contains England's oldest prison still in use, in the small town of Shepton Mallet, and the world's oldest known engineered roadway, the Sweet Track.

Geology, landscape and ecology

For the full article see Geology of Somerset

Much of the landscape of Somerset falls into two types, determined by the underlying geology. These landscapes are the limestone karst of the north east and the clay vales and wetlands of the south and west. In the north east the Mendip Hills are high, often bare mountain limestone hills with an extensive network of caves and underground rivers and a number of gorges, famously Cheddar Gorge. The main habitat on these hills is calcareous grassland, with some arable agriculture. To the south of the hills, on the clay substrate, are a number of small valleys which support dairy farming and drain into the Somerset Levels. This expanse of flat land, stretching up to 20 miles inland, is only a few feet above sea level and before it was drained, starting in Saxon times, much of the land was under a shallow brackish sea all year. According to legend Joseph of Arimathea sailed across the levels to Glastonbury, a dry point near the southern edge of the levels. In the far west of the county, running into Devon, is Exmoor, a high Devonian sandstone moor. The highest point in Somerset is Dunkery Beacon on Exmoor, with an altitude of 519 metres (1704 feet).

Trade, industry and tourism

While many towns have developed small scale light engineering industries, the main part of the county contains few significant industrial centres; Bridgwater which was developed during the Industrial Revolution due to then being the West Country's leading port, and Yeovil which is important in the manufacture of helicopters. The city of Bristol sits on its Northern border, and the southern part of that city is within the historic county borders.

Missing image
Somerset.dunster.arp.750pix.jpg
The Dunster Yarn Market was built in 1609 for the trading of local cloth

Much of the county is scenic and unspoilt. Tourism is a major industry in the county, estimated in 2001 to support around 23,000 people. Attractions include its coastal towns, part of the Exmoor National Park, the West Somerset Railway (a heritage railway), and the museum of the Fleet Air Arm at RNAS Yeovilton. The town of Glastonbury is famous for its mythical associations, and open-air rock festival (actually in Pilton), while the Cheddar Gorge is famous for caves open to visitors, as well as its locally produced cheese.

Agriculture continues to be a major business in the county, if no longer a major employer. Once Apple orchards were plentiful and to this day Somerset is linked to the production of strong cider, arguably more so than any other part of the world. The towns of Taunton and Shepton Mallet are involved with the production of cider, especially Blackthorn Dry Cider, a refined cider rooted in Somerset and sold nationwide.


Settlements

Taunton war memorial
Enlarge
Taunton war memorial
Missing image
Pulteney_Bridge,_daytime,_from_weir.jpg
Palladian Pulteney Bridge and the weir at Bath
Missing image
Wells_Cathedral_West_Front.jpg
The west front of Wells Cathedral
The West Somerset Railway
Enlarge
The West Somerset Railway

The original county town of Somerset was Somerton, but in recent years that role has been transferred to Taunton. The county has two cities, Bath and Wells.

Main settlements (with a population of more than 3,000)

For the complete list of settlements see List of places in Somerset

Places of interest

Template:EngPlacesKey

Internal links

External links

Template:Commonscat

References


United Kingdom | England | Ceremonial counties of England Flag of England

Bedfordshire | Berkshire | City of Bristol | Buckinghamshire | Cambridgeshire | Cheshire | Cornwall | Cumbria | Derbyshire | Devon | Dorset | Durham | East Riding of Yorkshire | East Sussex | Essex | Gloucestershire | Greater London | Greater Manchester | Hampshire | Herefordshire | Hertfordshire | Isle of Wight | Kent | Lancashire | Leicestershire | Lincolnshire | City of London | Merseyside | Norfolk | Northamptonshire | Northumberland | North Yorkshire | Nottinghamshire | Oxfordshire | Rutland | Shropshire | Somerset | South Yorkshire | Staffordshire | Suffolk | Surrey | Tyne and Wear | Warwickshire | West Midlands | West Sussex | West Yorkshire | Wiltshire | Worcestershire

cy:Gwlad yr Haf de:Somerset eo:Somerset es:Somerset fr:Somerset ja:サマセット no:Somerset simple:Somerset

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