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Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)

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History of China
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The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors
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The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: Jīn 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wnyn) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. The name is sometimes written as Jinn to differentiate it from an earlier Jin Dynasty of China whose name is spelled identically in the Roman alphabet.

Missing image
China_11b.jpg
China in 1142.

Founded in 1115 in northern Manchuria, it successively annihilated in 1125 the Liao Dynasty which had held sway over Manchuria and the northern frontier of China for several centuries. On January 9, 1127 Jin forces ransacked Kaifeng, capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, capturing both Emperor Qinzong, and his father, Emperor Huizong, who had abdicated in panic in the face of Jin forces. Following the fall of Kaifeng, Song forces under the leadership of the succeeding Southern Song Dynasty continued to fight for over a decade with Jin forces, eventually signing a peace treaty in 1141, and ceding all of North China to the Jin in 1142 in return for peace.

After taking over North China, the Jin Dynasty became increasingly Sinicized, moving its capital from Huining Fu in northern Manchuria (south of present-day Harbin) to Zhongdu (now Beijing). Starting from the early 13th century the Jin Dynasty began to feel the pressure of Mongols from the north. In 1214 the Jin Dynasty moved its capital to Kaifeng (the old Song capital) to evade the Mongols; but under the forces of the Mongol Empire led by gedei Khan, third son of Genghis Khan, as well as their allies in the Southern Song Dynasty, the dynasty crumbled in 1234.

In 1616, Manchus under the leadership of Nurhaci established the Later Jin Dynasty, taking its name from this dynasty. Later Jin was renamed the Qing Dynasty in 1636, and went on to conquer China proper and become the last dynasty of Imperial China.


Sovereigns of Jin Dynasty 1115-1234
Temple Name
Miao Hao
廟號
mioho
Posthumous Name
Shi Hao
諡號
shho
Birth Name
 
姓名
xngmng
Years of
Reign
Era Name
Nian Hao
年號
ninho
and Years
Convention: "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name
Tizǔ
太祖
(1) Wnyn Āgǔdǎ
完顏阿骨打
1115-1123

Shōugu
收國
1115-1116
 
Tiānfǔ
天輔
1117-1123

Tizōng
太宗
(1) Wnyn Wqǐmǎi
完顏吳乞買
or
Wnyn (Shng or Chng)
完顏晟
1123-1134 Tiānhu
天會
1123-1134
Xīzōng
熙宗
(1) Wnyn Hl
完顏合剌
or
Wnyn Dǎn
完顏亶
1135-1149

Tiānhu
天會
1135-1138
 
Tiānjun
天眷
1138-1141
 
Hungtǒng
皇統
1141-1149

(2) Hǎilngwng
海陵王
Wnyn Ling
完顏亮
1149-1161

Tiānd
天德
1149-1153
 
Zhnyun
貞元
1153-1156
 
Zhnglng
正隆
1156-1161

Shzōng
世宗
(1) Wnyn Yōng
完顏雍
1161-1189 Ddng
大定
1161-1189
Zhāngzōng
章宗
(1) Wnyn Jǐng
完顏璟
1190-1208 Mngchāng
明昌
1190-1196
 

Chng'ān
承安
1196-1200
 
Tih
泰和1200-1208

(2) Wishowng
衛紹王
or
Wiwng
衛王
Wnyn Yǒngj
完顏永濟
1209-1213 D'ān
大安
1209-1212
 

Chngqng
崇慶
1212-1213
 
Zhnng
至寧
1213

Xuānzōng
宣宗
(1) Wnyn Xn
完顏珣
1213-1223 Zhēnyu
貞祐
1213-1217
 

Xīngdng
興定
1217-1222
 
Yunguāng
元光
1222-1223

Āizōng
哀宗
(1) Wnyn Shǒux
完顏守緒
1224-1234 Zhngd
正大
1224-1232
 

Kāixīng
開興
1232
 
Tiānxīng
天興
1232-1234

(2)
Md
末帝
Wnyn Chngln
完顏承麟
1234 (2)

(1) Quite long and thus not used when referring to this sovereign.
(2) Did not exist

See also: Puxian Wannude:Jin-Dynastie nl:Jin-dynastie (1115-1234) ja:金 (王朝) fi:Jin-dynastia vi:Nh Kim zh:金朝

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